Anatomy of Four Race Riots
Racial Conflict in Knoxville, Elaine (Arkansas), Tulsa and Chicago, 1919-1921

By Lee E. Williams
and Lee E. Williams II

128 pages, 6x9 inches

978-1-60473-190-3 Paper $25.00D

Paper, $25.00


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Anatomy of Four Race Riots is a study of the terrible racial violence that erupted in four different communities of America during the post World War I years, racial violence that left hundreds dead or injured and a massive amount of destruction in its wake.

Although the igniting incident or event varied somewhat, there was a similarity in the racial climate that existed in each town. The emerging blacks, boosted economically and idealistically by the war effort, were viewed as a threat by some of the whites. The bloody confrontations described here were grave evidence of the intensity of the fear and hatred that existed between a portion of the races.

Lee E. Williams (deceased) was Dean for Administration at Jackson State University. Lee E. Williams II is Professor of History at the University of Alabama, Huntsville.

128 pages, 6x9 inches